Antonio de Andrade

(Oleiros, Castel White, Beira Baixa, Portugal, 1580 – Goa, India, 19.3.1634).


António de Andrade, nato a Oleiros, area Castelo Branco, province Beira Baixa, Portugal, in 1580, entered the Society of Jesus a Coimbra, the 16 December 1596, e partì per l’India in 1600. A Goa he studied philosophy and theology and, around 1608, was ordained a priest; played the President of the University in the colleges of Rachol and St. Paul Goa. From 1612 was to Agra as Superior of the missions'Mughal Empire.

The news reported by merchants, evidencing the existence of Christians beyond dell 'Himalayas, prompted him to go to those countries unknown. Partì da Agra the 30 March 1624, with the lay brother, Manoel Brands,[1] and with two servants converted to Christianity, joining a caravan of pilgrims Hindu directed towards the sources of the sacred Times, the pagoda of Badrinath. Passing per Srinagar, capital of Garhwal,[2] after passing around 5.500 meters above sea level up Mana (Mana-la or Dungri-la), de Andrade giunse a Tsaparang, was the capital of the kingdom of Guge, in Tibet occidentale, at the beginning of August 1624. With this great enterprise, first crossing of the Himalayas says one of the European, the Portuguese missionary is also the first visitor to certain Tibet from the west.

A Tsaparang was well received by the king and left after twenty-five days, promising to return. He returned to Agra at the beginning of November 1624, Andrade described the journey with epic tones in a letter (dated Agra 8 November 1624) who became a successful book entitled New discovery of the Grand Cathay, or the kingdoms of Tibet, translated from the Portuguese in different languages.[3]

The second trip, with his father Gonzales de Souza [4] and two servants, started by Agra the 17 June 1625, condusse of the Andrade Tsaparang, after ten weeks, the following August. Back in September of Souza drove, mentre Andrade, who in the meantime had founded a mission and started the construction of a church, was reached in April 1626 dai Padri João de Olive tree[5], Francisco Godinho[6] (shared the following year) and the Mastiff Angels,[7] accompanied by Manoel Brands, which returned immediately India.

In the period of the arrival of missionaries Tsaparang, were ongoing power struggles that opposed the king to his brother (main blade of Guge) and other relatives belonging to the monastic order, so de Andrade was able to establish the mission, with the favor of the sovereign, eager to counter the interference of religious authorities in its leadership of the kingdom. Party Godinho, in 1627 Manoel came again Brands with his father António Pear,[8] and in 1629 Arriva António of Fonseca.[9]

Andrade wrote two other reports, in 1626[10] and in 1627,[11] where are the first descriptions of Tibet and his religion, although educated in its most external and superficial. A fine 1629 he was recalled to Goa for taking on the higher charge of that great province that included most of 'India, the Persia and east coast of Africa, where there were about three hundred missionaries. Rectum that position by 1630 to the 1633, when he was replaced by Father Álvaro Tavares (1575-1637), and assumed the post of dean of the College of St. Paul in Goa. While busy with many commitments, did not forget the mission of the Tibet and in 1631 sent his father Francisco de Azevedo[12] as a visitor to Tsaparang, after the invasion, by the Ladakh, of the kingdom of Guge, invasion, is the name istigata, perhaps favored by its blade to which the king was opposed.

Informed about the latest events by Manoel Brands, just come to Agra to provide for the necessary supplies to the mission, and led by the now experienced visitor to those paths, of Azevedo partì da Agra the 28 June the 1631st 25 August following, reached Tsaparang. The city was ruled by a governor appointed by the king of Ladakh, returned to Leh taking, as a prisoner, the old king of Guge, and the climate was evident hostility toward the mission. This prompted the visitor to a bold move: go directly to deal with the king in the capital of Ladakh. The journey, made in the company of João de Olive tree, was carried out from 4 to the 25 October 1631 and the two missionaries, obtained permission for the continuation of the mission, left Leh, the 7 November 1631, to return to Agra, via Lahul and Kulu, the 3 January 1632.

Andrade was also the prosecutor in a trial of the Inquisition and died poisoned, the 19 March 1634, while preparing his third expedition in Tibet.

To provide a complete portrait of the Portuguese Jesuit can not but speak of his intolerant attitude and decidedly un-Christian against Hindu pilgrims headed to the sources of Times, of the party of which also used the company and support. Read his next song, taken from its first report:

They [the Indian pilgrims] climbed walking one after the other (the path is not allowed to go in two) continuously shouting big hurray to their idol with the words Ye ye ye Badrynate […] We we heard with great sorrow of hell these items, and since we could not take other revenge of the cursed idol, the scagliavamo with the same frequency as many curses [Often ...] booze pagodas for the most sumptuously work, illuminated with lamps and all of different shape, but all abominable and ridiculous. Employees at their service, there are many yogi looking that same show to be ministers of the devil. [With one of these ...] I wanted to do what two months before our king had made to another yogi [disrespectful of the sovereign]. The king commanded that he be brought to the ground by the hair and dragged, avutolo before, told him that he was the devil or a living image […] Then he ordered [various punishments and whipping]. As many, I thought, you had to do to yogi which I mentioned above.[13]

This attitude arrogant and opinionated, led Mario Piantelli to talk about the drama for the first meeting of the Christianity with Buddhism; during a review of the book by Giuseppe Tuscan, dedicated to the first exploratory missions Tibet and in the neighboring small states Himalayan, puts it this way:

There is adventure with them [the missionaries], between hope and dismay, in the region of Gu ge, then the seat of a small independent kingdom, in Bhutan, in Ladakh. We share in their wonder in front of people and places never before approached by a European, reliving the drama of the encounter with the Buddhismo tibetano of these men Counterreformation.

Because it is really a drama: misunderstanding and violence mark this page Iberian adventure outside Europe, like so many other. At the center of the concerns of the missionaries is the eradication of a faith that can not understand. Without adequate language skills, relying on intuition and to the services of interpreters improvised, the brave and innocent priests remain blind to the spiritual riches that unfold before them.

Here is a huge building philosophical, symbolic, mystical, distilled centuries of intellectual labor and soul searching ... and the first Europeans to contemplate not know that discernment of barbaric rituals, coarse imitations Christianity. Can not read the report without sadness of the dispute between the de Andrade and the highest religious authorities of Gu ge. Those subtle metaphysical, uses a discourse on the relativity of time inconsistency and, space and causality must have been amazed at the stranger.

Very ... more missionaries showed themselves adept in capturing the tensions of the local political framework: the readiness with which the King of Gu ge respond to their arrival, sparking a fight against his clergy that will eventually see him dethroned, food for thought ...[14]

In 1635, after the death of de Andrade was sent by Goa, to the mission established in the former kingdom of Guge, a group of seven missionaries, led by a Spanish father Nuño Coresma;[15] an ill-fated expedition in which two fathers died on the way, two other (Balthasar Caldeira[16] and Pietro Freytas[17]) and a layman (Fratello Faustino Barreiros[18]) became seriously ill and were forced to stop Srinagar. Coresma arrived in July 1635, with the only father Ambrosio Belt,[19] a Tsaparang, where he found an untenable situation, and so he sent soon back his traveling companion, Belt, the bearer of a message which asked to close the mission. He did not even have time to get the answer, early autumn of that same 1635, was forced to abandon the mission, Incamminandosi on the way back along with Manoel Brands, last missionary in the mission was founded by de Andrade.

The decision, however, was to maintain, waiting for better times, a presence in Srinagar in Garhwal, where, autumn 1636, were sent to the fathers Pear and Angels; the latter died in the same year and was replaced by his father Italian Stanislaus Malpichi,[20] which in January 1637 had just arrived at Agra. Responding, Reluctantly, at the request of the General Company, Muzio Vitelleschi (Rome 2.12.1563 – Rome 9.2.1645), the new provincial Goa, Manoel d’Almeida (1580-1646), succeeded to the newly deceased Álvaro Tavares (1575-1637), began work one last attempt to reopen the mission of the Tibet sending, in 1640, three missionaries to Srinagar, usually led by Brands. The three remained in place and the superior of the mission, Stanislaus Malpichi, nell'estate 1640, went on patrol with the veteran Brands. The two missionaries, When you enter the Tibet, were arrested; escaped, but Brands was resumed and Malpichi returned alone to Srinagar. Manoel Brands was still a prisoner in the 1641, then it sank forever tracks.

Over here the story of the mission initiated by de Andrade in Tibet Western, it is appropriate to mention that during the same period, the Jesuits operated other attempts towards the Tibet, with fathers Portuguese Eastęvain Cacella (Notice, Évora, Portugal,1585 – Shigatse, Tibet, 6.3.1630) and John Cabral (Lumbering Edge, District of Guarda, Portugal, 1599 – Goa 4.7.1669), receive in Europe Bhutan (1627) and to Shigatse, in Tibet (1628-1629). The deeds of the Tibetan Jesuits are completed with passage through the country from north to south accomplished, in the journey from Beijing (13 April 1661) to Agra (March 1662), the two astronomers Johannes Grueber (Linz, Austria, 28.10.1623 – Sárospatak, Hungary, 30.9.1680), Austrian, and Albert d’Orville (Brussels, Belgium, 12.8.1621 – Agra, India, 8.4.1662), Belgian. The two missionaries were the first Europeans to Lhasa, where they remained two months, 8 September to the end of November 1661;[21] later came to the Valle di Kathmandu (January 1662), well received by the King of Patan.

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Reference works on the first exploration of the Tibet are the classic ones of the Jesuit geographer Cornelis Wessels:

- Cornelis Wessels, Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia. 1603-1721, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1924, pp. XVI + 344;

- Cornelis Wessels, The Jesuit Mission in Tibet, 1625-1721, Introduction to An Account of Tibet. The Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, S.J., 1712-1727. Edited by Filippo De Filippi, George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. (“Broadway Travellers”, edited by Sir E. Denison Ross and Eileen Power), London, 1932, pp. XVIII + 475: 3-32.

Important works are those prepared by the Xaverian Joseph Tuscan, in Italian, e da Hugues Didier, in francese:

- Joseph Tuscan, The first Catholic mission in Tibet, Institute for Foreign Missions, Parma (Imprimerie de Nazareth, M.E.P., Hong Kong), 1951, pp. XXI + 320 [second edition, Discovering Tibet. Relations of the missionaries of the century. XVII, Editrice Italian Missionary (Scientific Library,4), Bologna, 1977, pp. 499 + 24 tavv. f.t.];

- Didier Hugues (and.), The Portuguese in Tibet. First Jesuit Relations (1624-1635) translated and introduced by Didier Hugues, And. Chandeigne (Collection Magellane), Paris, 1996, pp. 384.

Consider even though brief treatments of the voices of encyclopedias:

- John Rommerskirchen, voce 'Tibet' in Catholic Encyclopedia, Vatican City, 1948-1954 (12 fully.): Flight. XII, 1954, coll. 77-81, spec. III. Evangelization, with. 80;

- Richard F. Sherburne, voce 'Tibet', in Charles E. O'Neill S.I., Joaquin M.a Domínguez S.I. (eds.), Historíco Dictionary of the Society of Jesus. Biographical and thematic, Conventional historical S.I. (Rome) – Universidad Pontificia Comillas (Madrid), 2001, 4 fully.: Flight. IV, pp. 3794-3795.

For works of António de Andrade, beyond what is included in the notes 3 10 and 11, please refer to the large bibliographies:

- Carlos Summer Vogel S.J., Library of the Society of Jesus, New edition, Oscar Schepens (Brussels)-Alphonse Picard (Parsi), 1890-1900 (9 fully.), Flight. I, 1891, coll. 329-331;

- Henri Cordier, Bibliotheca Sinica. Bibliographical dictionary of books relating to the Chinese Empire, 2me revised edition, corrected and considerably increased, It. Guilmoto Publisher, Paris, 1904-1908 (4 fully. + the Vol. In, "Supplement and index", 1922), Flight. IV, 1907-1908 coll. 2898-2903;

- Laszlo Citizen, Bibliography of the History of the Society of Jesus. 1901-1980, Conventional historical S.I., Rome,1981-1990 (3 fully. in 6 tomi), Flight. II (Countries), 1983-1986 (2 tomi): II (America, Asia, Africa, Oceania), 1986, pp. 537: 496-497.

Su António de Andrade yes Vedan Ancheer:

- Adrien Launay, History Mission Tibet, Society of St. Augustine / Descle Brouwer and C., Lille-Paris, 1903, 2 fully. (pp. VIII + 471 ; 440 [Ristampa Foreign Missions of Paris / The Learned India, Paris, 2001] : Flight. I, pp. 23-30;

- Cornelius Wessels S.I., António de Andrade S.I., a ontdeckkingsreiziger in the Himalayas and Tibet 81624-1630), "Studien", 77, 1912, pp. 408-440 [António de Andrade S.I., Himalaia not traveling and not Tibete (1624-1630). Translated from Dutchman, ("Studien". Magazine Sciencia of Religions and Literature) , pp. 26];

- Cornelius Wessels S.I., Antony de Andrade S. I. missionis in Tibetan kingdom Fundator, in For annum sæcolarem restitutæ Societatis Iesu, 1814-1914, pp. 159-188;

- Prudent the Letter S.J., The first Missie in Tibet. P. Antonio de Andrade, S.J. (1580-1634), “Xaveriana”, n. 107 (9and Series, n. 11), pp. 32;

- Felix Alfred Plattner, Jesuits at sea. The road to Asia. A Contribution to the History of Discoveries [The Jesuits by sea. The your verse l'Asie. A contribution to the history of discoveries], Atlantis, Zurich, 1946, pp. 367:189-199 [Jesuits Go East. A record of Missionary Activity in the East. 1541-1786, translated from the German by Lord Sudley and Oscar Blobel, Clonmore & Reynolds, Dublin 1950, pp. 283: pp. 150-159; Jesuits in the sea. The road to Asia. Contribution to the History of Discoveries. Sonsoles Teresita Castilian version of the German edition published in Zurich (1946), Editorial Poblet, Buenos Aires, 1952, pp. 326; When Europe sought Asia. Jesuit missionaries (1541-1785). Translated from German, Tournai – Paris, 1954, pp. 301; 2a German edition Pepper and souls, The discovery of the sea and land route to Asia, Einsiedeln, 1955, p. 271; Dutch translation Met Kruis in Kompas. Toward Asia. Contribution to the knowledge of exploration, Roermond and Maaseik, 1956; The ancient Silk Road. Preface of the P. Pasquale D’Elia S.J (Italian translation of Mother Josepha Zelano, from the German Pepper and souls, 1955), Editrice Italian Missionary, Turin - Bologna - Milan – Parma, 1958, pp. (4) + 278: 140-148; Polish translation When Europe was looking for Asia. The translation: Anthony Starzeńska, ks. Mieczyslaw Cooper S.I., Krakow, 1976];

- Edmonde Lamalle, voce 'Andrade, Antonio 'in Catholic Encyclopedia, Vatican City, 1948-1954 (12 fully.): Flight. I, 1949, with. 1182;

- Fernando Castelo-Branco, The fame of the first missionary santitade Tibet, in International Congress of History of Discoveries. Record, Flight. In, Part II, Lisbon , 1961, pp. 21-33;

- John MacGregor, Tibet: A Chronicle of Exploration, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1970 [Praeger Publishers, New York – Washington 1970; 2nd edition 1972], pp. X + 373: 33-47.

- Joseph Tuscan, Contribution of Father D’Andrade (1580-1634) to the Knowledge of Bon, “The Tibet Journal"A VI, n. 2, Summer 1981, pp. 67-73;

- Neves Waters (and.), Travels in Central Asia Demand in the Cataio: Benedict Goes and António de Andrade. Introduction and notes Neves Waters, Mem Martins (Europe-America Publications), Portugal, 1988, pp. 126;

- Didier Hugues, Antonio de Andrade at the origin of the European tibétophilie, in Essays for Portuguese culture history, 20 band, 1988-1992, Munster, 1993, pp. 45-71;

- Didier Hugues, The discoverer of Tibet. Antonio de Andrade S.I.., "Christ", 159, 1993, pp. 371-381;

- Philip Caraman, Tibet. The Jesuit Century, Institute of Jesuit Sources, Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., 1997, pp. In + 154;

- Memories of Tibet. Andrade – Bogle – Carson Rijnhart – Wish – Grenard – Landon – Manning, Abraxas Editions (Millennium Collection), Barcelona, Spain, 2001, pp. 220: 15-38;

- Richard F. Sherburne, voce 'Andrade, António de. Founder of the mission of Tibet ', in Charles E. O'Neill S.I., Joaquin M.a Domínguez S.I. (eds.), Historíco Dictionary of the Society of Jesus. Biographical and thematic, Conventional historical S.I. (Rome)-Universidad Pontificia Comillas (Madrid), 2001, 4 fully.: Flight. I, pp. 160-161.

See also the website / seccao / kingdom-of-tibet-antonio-de-Andrade /

[Safety data sheet by Enzo G. Bargiacchi]

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[1] Manoel Brands, born in 1596 and entered into the Society of Jesus in 1618. He was the traveling companion of António de Andrade Tibet (Tsaparang, capital of the kingdom of Guge), first crossing of the Himalayas Europeanisation of the di, remaining there from August to September 1624, and returning there several times. Fu in Tibet: from April to the end of 1626, after having conducted the fathers João de Olive tree, Francisco Godinho and the Mastiff Angels (Alain de la Beauchaire); September to November 1627, after leading the father António Pear; at various times following, guiding, among others, Father Francisco de Azevedo, in 1627, lead up to the father Nuño Coresma, driving the ill-fated expedition reached Tsaparang in July 1635, In the autumn of the same year he was forced to abandon the mission. L’epilogo fu, to Brands, even more tragic. In the last attempt to restore the mission of the Tibet, under pressure from the General Company, accompanied by three fathers Agra a Srinagar in Garhwal, e da lì partì, in the summer of 1640, with the Father Stanislao Malpichi, top of that mission. They were arrested just entered Tibet; escaped, but Brands was resumed, and in 1641 is still a prisoner in Tsaparang, after which if they lose track.

[2] Not to be confused with the eponymous capital of Kashmir, this Srinagar (550 m) is located on the slopes of 'Himalayas, about 110 km a NE di Rishikesh, on the banks of ' Alaknanda River.

[3] New discovery of Gram Cathayo or Kingdoms of Tibet Pello Father Antonio de Andrade, the Society of Jesu, Portuguez, no year 1624, Matheus Pinheiro, Lisbon, 1626. The manuscript is preserved in Rome, at the Historical Society of Jesus (Archives of the Society of Jesus Roman), ARSI, Goa 73, ff. 2-23, together with the Castilian translation printed in the same 1626, New descubrimento Grand Cathayo, ò kingdoms of Tibet, by Father Antonio de Andrade, of the Society of Iesus, Portogues, Year of 1624, Matthew Pine, Lisbon, 1626, pp. 23 (ARSI, Goa 73, ff. 24-45). It was also translated into Italian (two editions in 1627), French (three editions, 1627 and 1628), Dutch and Polish.

In italiano: Relatione novo the unveiling of the great Cataio, overo kingdom of Tibet. Made from P. Antonio Andrade of the Portuguese Society of Jesu year 1624, Francesco Corbelletti, Rome, 1627, pp. 40 (Italian first edition, translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Gabrielli); other issue Naples 1627, pp. 46.

In francese: Le grand Cathayo, or kingdoms of Tibet, does aguerres descouverts by P. Anthony Andrade Poruguez the Company Iesus. The all fired Letters dict P. Andrade's Superior dated 8. November. 1624. Traduict accurately the Espagnol François, Gaultier Manila, Ghent, 1627, pp. 40 (including the title); Relationship of the new descouverte the great Cathay, or the Kingdom of Tibet. Made by P. Antoine d'Andrade Portugueze, of the Society of Iesus, L'an 1624. From a letter of Mesme P. Escriva have R.P. Provincial of Goa Compagnie mesme. And translated from Italian François, Sebastien Chappelet, Paris, 1627, pp. 55. Altra edizione francese in Travel to Tibet, made 1625 and 1626, by the father of Andrada and 1774, 1784 and 1785, par Bogle, Turner and Pourunguir. Translated by J.-P. Parraud to J.-B. Billecoq, Printing Hautbout Elder, Paris, 1796 (an. IV) [the report of the first trip is republished Michel Jan, The trip to Central Asia and Tibet. Anthology of Western travelers from the Middle Ages to the early twentiethand century (Introduction, chronology, bibliography, index of names of persons and places established by Michel January; cards issued by Fernand Bunel), Robert Laffont edition (Books; Collection edited by Guy Schoeller), Paris, 1992, pp. XXXII + 1487 : 1099-1113].

Recent editions in Tuscan 1951 (pp. 47-76), Tuscan 1977 (pp. 81-120), in Italian; e Didier 1997 (pp. 29-63), in francese. See also Note 10.

[4] Father Gonzales Souza, nato a Matosinhos (Portugal) in 1589, entered the C. d. G. in 1605, he was sent to India in 1611 and engaged in 'Mughal Empire from 1619.

[5] John Olive tree, born in 1595 a Daman (Portuguese settlement, became the capital of the Portuguese State of India, until the independence of this; today Daman, federal district of the territory of Diu e Daman) seventeen and entered in the C. d. G. He was sent to the mission of 'Mughal Empire and immediately Tsaparang, where he remained until October 1631, when, with his father, Francisco de Azevedo, went so far as to Leh, in Ladakh. He returned to Agra in January 1632, worked in that mission, where the lists of the missionaries attest to the 1641.

[6] Francisco Godinho (Évora, Portugal, 1596 – Goa 30.1.1662), entered the 1615 in C. d. G., partì per l’India in 1619. The poor health made him stay in Tibet only a year, and, after two years to Agra, returned to the mission of Goa, engaged both in seat, sia a Says, Daman and Bassein.

Godinho wrote a report on his trip (lettera da Tsaparang in data 16.8.1626), published in French in a booklet entitled Advis sure a wider descouverte the Kingdom of Cathay, With few other notables particularitez the coste of Cocincina and antiquity of Foy Chrestienne in China. From the letters p, p'. the C. de J. of the Year 1626, Sebastien Chappelet, Paris, 1628, pp. 28. See also, in inglese, Henri Hosting S.I., A letter of Father Francisco Godinho S.I. from Western Tibet (Tsaparang, August 16. 1626, “Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal”, 21, 1925, pp. 49-73.

[7] Alano of Angels is the name adopted in Portuguese India Alain de la dal francese Beauchaire (Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine, France, 1592 – Srinagar, Garhwal, 1636); entered the 1607 in C. d. G., partì per l’India in 1622. After an initial stay of about two years in Tibet, he returned a second time to stay there until 1635. He returned to Agra, he went again, in 1636, a Srinagar, where he died shortly after.

[8] Antonio Pear, born in 1596 a Sandpaper, in the district of Port, Portugal, entered the 1612 in C. d. G. Partì per l’India in 1624 and in 1626 was assigned to the mission of 'Mughal Empire.

[9] Antonio da Fonseca, nato a Mourao, in the district of Évora, Portugal, in 1600, entered in the twenties C. d. G. He remained in Tibet perhaps up to 1635.

[10] Annual Tibet do do de year 1626 (letter to General Company and Roma, Datata "Chaparangue" 14 August 1626; manuscript ARSI, Goa 73, ff. 2-23). Published in Spanish (Castilian) in 1628 Diego of Flamenco, Segovia (translation from the original Portuguese), e in traduzione italiana in Letters MDCXXVI annual Tibet and China's MDCXXIV written to M. R. P. Mutio Vitelleschi, General of the Society of Jesu, Francesco Corbelletti, Rome, 1628, pp. 130 (the Letter from Tibet year MDCXXVI, di de Andrade è alle pp. 3-58). In francese : Story of what happened in the Kingdom of Tibet. Derived from Letts escriptes in the year 1626. Addressed to the R.P. Mutio Vitelleschi General de la Compagnie de Iesus. Traduicte Italian into French by Pere de after the same company, Sebastien Cramoisy, Paris, 1629.

The two reports are collected in volumes in both the original Portuguese:

- António de Andrade S.I, The discovery of Tibet … in 1624, narrated in two cards of the same religious. Studio history by Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira, Imprensa give University - Academy Sciencie Lisbon, Coimbra, Portugal, 1921, pp. 142 [Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira (1854-1924)];

- Travels in Central Asia Demand in the Cataio: Benedict Goes and António de Andrade. Introduction and notes Neves Waters, Mem Martins (Europe-America Publications), Portugal, 1988, pp. 126.

Translations: in Italian, in Tuscan 1951 ( pp. 47-76, New discovery of the Grand Cathay or of the kingdoms of Tibet, made by Father Antonio de Andrade, the Society of Jesus, Portuguese, year 1624; pp. 96-146, Tibet's annual year 1626) [Tuscan 1977, pp. 186-249];
in spagnolo, It Antonio de Andrade S.I., New Grand Cathay descubrimento (First Letter) – (Second letter), The Arcadia (Arcadia Publishing, 2-3), Madrid, 1947, pp. XII + 56 e pp. 50;
in francese, Didier 1997 (pp, 29-63, First story D'Antonio de Andrade; pp. 65-119, Second story D'Antonio de Andrade).
For references to Tuscan 1951 and 1977, e a Didier 1997, themselves prohibition the Bibliographical.

[11] Relaçam missam of Tibet, manuscript in Portuguese, dated "2 die Setembre 1627", preserved in ARSI, Goa 73, ff. 62-65 (Annual Tibet do do de year 1627, ARSI, Goa 73, ff. 52-61). Published in English in Henri Hosting S.I., A letter of Fr. A. de Andrade S.I.. (Tibet, Aug. 29th. 1627), and of Fr. Gaspar Diaz S.I. (Annam, 1627), “Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal”, 21, 1925, pp. 75-93. In traduzione francese, Third story of António de Andrade), Didier 1997 (in. Bibliography), pp. 121-139.

[12] Francisco de Azevedo (Lisbon 1578 – Goa 12.8.1860) spent most of his life in India, as it had gone as a child; in 1597, a Goa, entered the C. d. G. After Says (1614) and Rachol (1620), was visitor to missions in Eastern and Southern Africa, and, in 1627 was assigned to the mission of 'Mughal Empire. Designated as a visitor Tibet, after the invasion of the kingdom of Guge by the Ladakh (1630), Azevedo, led by Manoel Brands, partì da Agra the 28 June 1631, reached Srinagar in Garhwal, from where the 31 July he walked toward Tsaparang, which reached 25 August 1631. The chi, the 4 October 1631, he set out Leh, in the company of João de Olive tree, through lands not yet visited by Europeans. After reaching the 25 October 1631 the capital of Ladakh, the two missionaries remained there until 7 November 1631, when, served their purpose, took a different way back, through Lahul and Kulu (arrival in Nagar, capitale di Kulu, the 26 November 1631), which led them to Agra the 3 January 1632.

Of Azevedo left an important relationship in Portuguese on his journey, an autograph manuscript, I give him firmato, that leads the recipient (Father António Freire, mission procurator of 'India in Portugal) as a header: Pera Father Antonio Freire, Prosecutor of the Provinces of India's Comp. of Jesus in Portugal. Stored ARSI (Goa 73, ff. 71-92, front and back), with the title Travel and Thibet mission in the P. Francesco de Azevedo, is divided into two parts:da Goa ad Agra (pp. 1-18) and Agra a Leh and return (pp. 19-44). This important document has been ignored for centuries, until its discovery and publication by Cornelis Wessels in his seminal book on the first visitors Tibet: C. Wessels, Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia. 1603-1721, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1924, pp. XVI + 344. De Azevedo is treated on pp.. 94-119, and the second part of his report is given in the original Portuguese pp.. 281-313 (Appendix I), with the title Azevedo’s Account of his Journey to Tibet. Second part (Agra pear Tibet). The report de Azevedo then it was published in Italian translation (non-integral) in Tuscan 1951, pp. 223-255, and in Tuscan 1977, pp. 356-399; e in traduzione francese, D'Agra au Tibet, Didier 1996, pp. 141-209, Récit Francisco de Azevedo (1631).

De Azevedo is the first European visitor found, although it seems that a Portuguese merchant, Diogo d'Almeida, had stayed there for two years in the early seventeenth century. Ignoring the journey of Portuguese missionaries and neglecting the transition, in 1715, the Italian Jesuit Ippolito Desideri (1684-1733), in the company of his confrere Portuguese Manoel Freyre (1679- ?), the great British explorer William Moorcroft (1767-1825), which was in Ladakh between 1820 and the 1822, it was considered the first European visitor to Leh.

[13] Tuscan 1951, pp. 51-52; Tuscan 1977, pp. 86-87; Didier 1996, pp. 34-35.

[14] Mario Piantelli, Pioneers in Tibet. The men of the Counterreformation opposite to Buddhism (Review of Joseph Tuscan, Discovering Tibet , EMI, Bologna, 1977), “Tuttolibri” (insert "The Press”), a. IV, n. 3, Saturday 28.1.1978, p. 16.

[15] Nuño Coresma, born in 1600 (probably in the village San Roman, the district Spanish Tordesillas) entered into sixteen C. d. G. e andò in India in 1625. After the mission to Tsaparang, in Tibet Western (July to October 1635), ran a boarding school in the island Salsette. He died in October 1650 off the coast of Mozambique (probably on his way Goa after a stay Europe.

[16] Balthasar Caldeira (Macao 1609 – Goa 3.5.1678) entered the C. d. G. a Goa in 1627 and spent three years in the mission of 'Mughal Empire; then worked in the Tonkin, in China, Japan and other countries, before returning to India, where he had many assignments.

[17] Pietro Freytas (Mondim, Portugal, 1608 – Goa 3.5.1840) entered the C. d. G. a Goa in 1630 and, always Goa was professor of theology.

[18] Barreiros (Lisbon 1605 – Bassein 8.3.1866) became a lay brother of the C. d. G. a Lisbon when was ventenne; is to Goa in 1633 and, returning from Srinagar the Garhwal, passò a Bassein, where he was engaged for most of his life.

[19] Ambrosio Belt (Aveiro, Portugal, 1606 – Angola 24.5.1652) entered the C. d. G. a Lisbon in 1622. In India from 1630, after the mission Tsaparang, where he remained from July to September 1635, was committed to Goa until 1650.

[20] Stanislaus Malpichi (Catanzaro, then Kingdom of Naples, 1600 – ?) remained from 1637 a 1644 in Garhwal and was a close friend of the local rajah. Subsequently alternated between Goa and Agra, where he was also the tutor of Dara Shikoh (20.3.1615 – 30.8.1659), eldest son of Shah Jahan (5.1.1592 – 22.1.1966), Emperor moghul from 1628 to the 1658, and his wife Mumtaz Mahal (1593 -17.6.1631), for which it was built, to Agra, the Taj Mahal. In 1662 assumed the highest office in the province of missionary Goa.

[21] Grueber, returned to Rome gave items to the Father Athanasius Kircher for his famous book on the China where it appears the first design of the Potala of Lhasa.

[Safety data sheet in February 2009 Enzo G is. Bargiacchi]

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De Andrade Biography in English language, by Josepf . Abdo

De Andrade Biography in English language, by Josepf . Abdo [PDF]