Giotto Dainelli

(Florence 19.5 1878 – Florence 16.11.1968)

Giotto Dainelli, son of General Louis and Virginia Mari, nacque the Florence the 19 May 1878. Boasted illustrious ancestry: the father was related to the Carbonari and patriots Bolognese Zambeccari and Ranuzzi; his mother was the daughter of the lawyer Adriano Mari (1813-1887), right-wing politician who held important institutional offices.[i] He spent his childhood away from Florence, as a result of changes in the places of employment of the father, and got to know the 'Europe given the habit of the family to take advantage of the summer holidays to make trips abroad.

In 1900 he graduated in Natural Sciences at 'Institute of Higher Studies of Florence, where he was a pupil of the geologist and paleontologist Charles Padua De Stefani (1851-1924), at the time the most illustrious teacher of the subject (was director of the Institute of Geology Florence and the academic Lincei); subsequently perfected all 'University of Vienna.

Dainelli immediately showed his value as a scholar with publications appeared in the geological and paleontological 1901, the first of a large series, extended to 1967, which still today constitutes a rich wealth of information, fruitful of valuable lessons.

In 1903 to achieve Florence the degree in Geology and Physical Geography and 1914 to the 1921 held the chair of Geography in the Faculty of Letters of the 'University of Pisa; later professor of geology at Naples until 1924, year in which, dead De Stefani, Back to Florence to take over the Chair of Geology of his master, then held continuously until 1944 and recovery, after World War II, until 1953.

Dainelli was not only a scholar desktop, but also the author of numerous study trips and exploratory missions, qualifying as a great traveler with mountaineering skills. Already in 1905-1906 performed an exploratory trip Eritrea, in the company of the geographer Olinto Marinelli, his friend and fellow student. He gained a wealth of data and materials, used for the report, published in Florence in 1912 with the title Scientific results of a journey in the Colony of Eritrea. He returned in Horn of Africa in 1936-1937 with an exploratory mission to the lake Tana, he organized and directed on behalf of 'Accademia d’Italia, of which he was a member. From that trip derived the volume The region of Lake Tana, published in Milan in 1939.

Importance of the participation of the geologist Florentine scientific expedition to Karakorum, carried out in 1913-1914 under the guidance of Philip De Filippi, and emerged as the most important and fruitful accomplished in that. The main purpose of this expedition was to complete the Asian triangulation carried out by the British and the Russians in their possessions in India and in Turkestan, geophysically also connecting them by means of a chain of stations gravimetric and magnetic, Esteso the Dehra Dun, in India, up to Tashkent, in Uzbekistan (then Turkestan Russian), through Kashmir, Himalayas Western, Karakorum, Baltistan and Ladakh, Tarim bacino (Xinjiang, Turkestan Chinese). The crossing of inaccessible areas, with large glaciers, often still not reached and not precisely mapped, also favored a significant undertaking exploratory especially in the eastern end of the great glaciers sites Karakorum. For this reason, in addition to the large group of specialists dedicated to the observations and geophysical research, weather, aerological and solar radiation, participated Dainelli, as a naturalist, geographer. He had great freedom of movement and action, often separating from the main body of the expedition, slow for the number of components and the loading of bulky instrumentation and also forced to take long pauses to make the necessary findings; alone, or with a small and agile caravan could make an extended reconnaissance of the entire area between Himalayas and Karakorum, which constitutes the upper basin dell 'Indo and its tributaries.

The extensive data collection and shipping materials mentioned above found worthy and utilization in Scientific Relations of the Italian expedition in the Himalayas De Filippi, Caracorùm e Turchestàn Cinese (1913-1914), published in 18 volumi fra il 1922 and the 1934 from the publisher Zanichelli Bologna, and divided of two series. The second, Results geological and geographical published under the direction of Giotto Dainelli (12 volume and 14 tomi, 1922-1934), undertook various eminent scholars, geologists, paleontologists, Botanical, zoologists and anthropologists, not participating in the expedition. The same was directly Dainelli author of the books: 1. The exploration of the region between the western Himalaya and Karakorum (1934); 2. The series of land (2 tomi, 1933 and 1934; 3. Studies on the Ice Age (2 tomi, 1922); 4. The physical condition of existing (1928; together with Olinto Marinelli); 8. The conditions of the people (1924); 9. I human types (1925; together with Renato Biasutti); 12. Indexes (1934).

Dainelli also published the diary of his exploration[ii] and to complete observations in 1913-1914, a returned in the same area with an expedition directed by him, organized in conjunction with the 'Military Geographical Institute in the company, which was attended by Lieutenant Henry Cecioni (Photographer) and captain Alessandro Latini (topographer).[iii] This mission, which reached as yet unexplored areas, fu descritta da Dainelli in My trip in Western Tibet (Mondadori, Milan, 1932, pp. XVI + 405),[iv] and is well described even in its hidden recesses in an article by Bausi and Caciolli, published in May 1998 his "TheUniverse”, of the magazine 'Military Geographical Institute.[in] The research carried out in the latter enriched the last shipment volumes sopraricordati Results. It deserves to be reported the first volume of the series (but released in 1934), which is still today the most complete overview of the explorations in the region between l 'Himalayas Western and Karakorum (excellent integration of Southern Tibet di Sven Hedin, spec. flight. VII, 1922), updated until 1930 and therefore includes the last journey of Dainelli and the first of Joseph Tucci; the rich bibliography remains an indispensable tool for any student of the industry.[we]

In 1944 Dainelli, after being Podesta fascista di Florence, followed Mussolini a Salo (Italian Social Republic), as director of’Accademia d’Italia.

Left, il 1 ° novembre 1953, university teaching of geology in Florence, following the completion of the 75 years, moved to Rome. He died on 16 November 1968 a Florence, where he had recently returned.

In his name they are thirty and four living fossil species and was named a top of the mountains Kazbegi, a massif Caucasus Georgian, which includes the volcanoes, time off, Kazbek e Khabarjina.

With a strong personality, powerful orator and a brilliant writer, Dainelli established itself among the leading figures of Italian culture between the two wars. Partner from 1919 dell’Lincei Academy, and further dell 'Accademia d’Italia, of which he was president after the killing (15.4.1944) John Kind in the years of Republic of Salo; member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and honorary or corresponding member of all major national Geographical Societies, he was assigned in the 1954, from Italian Geographic Society, the gold medal for the great explorers.

He was the author of about six hundred works (between books and articles) topic of geographical and geological, is that specialist outreach. Ranged in every field of geography and geology: from paleontology to glaciology, morphology, human geography, the history of exploration. In addition to research related to his explorations in Asia and Africa (Geology of East Africa, 1943; Italian explorers in Africa, 1960), is largely occupied Italy, both in general and particular areas of its: Physical-economic atlas of Italy, 1940 (coordinator and largely author); Le Alpi, 1963; L’Eocene friulano, 1915; The structure of the Alps Friuli, 1921. Specifically about his region remember: The altimetric zones of Monte Amiata, 1910; The distribution of the population in Tuscany, 1917.

Contributed all 'Italian Encyclopedia; founded and directed the "Memoirs geographical" and "Memoirs geology and geography".

Finally, we report some important works devoted to the history of exploration:

- Marco Polo, UTET (I Grandi Italiani. Necklace biographies directed by Luigi Federzoni, n. 12), Turin, 1941, pp. 241 + 1 geographic map in more colors (includes a table gravure) [French translation: Marco Polo, Denol, Paris, 1946, pp. 238 + 1 paper itineraria];

- The conquest of the Earth. History of Exploration, UTET, Turin, 1950, pp. XII + 745 with many illustrations (photo e book) in the text;

- Explorers and mountaineers in the Karakorum, UTET (The conquest of the Earth: Explorers and explorations. Collection directed by Giotto Dainelli, n. 2), Turin, 1959, pp. VIII + 447 + 1 folded paper and many illustrations in the text;

- Missionaries Mercadanti detectors and Asia in the Middle Ages (Travelers of the Middle Ages in Asia), UTET (The conquest of the Earth: Explorers and explorations. Collection directed by Giotto Dainelli, n. 5), Turin, 1959, pp. VII + 387, with many illustrations in the text;

- The Duke of the Abruzzi. The companies of the last great Italian explorer, UTET (The conquest of the Earth: Explorers and explorations. Collection directed by Giotto Dainelli, n. 14), Turin, 1959, pp. VII + 337, with 170 figures in the text.

On Dainelli see the following publications:

- “Bulletin of the Italian Geographic Society”, Series VIII, flight. VII, fasc. 3-4, March to April 1954 (entirely dedicated to Dainelli, at the event in his honor held on 5 April in Rome at the Italian Geographic Society), pp. 105-254;[vii]

- “Bulletin of the Italian Geographic Society”, Series IX, flight. X, a. CII, flight. CVI entire collection (1969), fasc. 1-3, January to March 1969, pp. 1-4, The disappearance of Giotto Dainelli (On the Death of Giotto Dainelli);[viii]

- “The Country”, Wednesday 18 December 1968, p. 3 (contains items from Joseph Widowed, Franco Nencini and Ugo Losacco);

- Giuseppe Caraci, An example to follow, "Geographical Memoirs", I, 1954, pp. 1-15;

- Aldo Sestini, The geographical work of Giotto Dainelli, “Italian Geographic magazine”, a. LXXXI, fasc. II, June 1969, pp. 201-206;

- Ilaria Luzzana Caraci, voice "Dainelli, Giotto "in Biographical Dictionary of Italians, Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia, Treccani, Rome, Flight. 31, 1985, pp. 693-694;

- G.G. Bausi, S. Caciolli, L’IGM sul Karakorum (1930). Reflections on “Miscellaneous Dainelli”, an unprecedented Library Military Geographic Institute, “TheUniverse“, a. LXXVIII, n. 3, May 1998, pp. 373-386;

- Maria Mancini, Giotto Dainelli and Filippo De Filippi: il ‘backstage’ shipment 1913-14, in Laura Cassi (and.), The “Abode of Snow” and papers found. Filippo De Filippi and Italian scientific expeditions in Central Asia (1909 and 1913-14). Proceedings of the Conference – Florence 13-14 March 2008, Society for Geographical Studies (“Geographical Memoirs” – Published as a supplement to "Italian Geographic magazine” – New set # 8, year 2009), Florence, 2009, pp. 253-273.



[i] Adriano Mari (Florence 16.12.1813 – Fiesole, Florence, 24.7.1887), elected to the Assembly in Tuscany 184, remained there for a very short time; in 1861 he was elected the eighth legislature of the Kingdom of Italy, the newly established (The numbering follows the seven terms of Kingdom of Sardinia, 1848-1860); the 26.11.1884 was appointed Senator of Kingdom of Italy (XV legislature). From the 1865 and the 1869 he was elected three times to the Speaker of the House: 18.11.1865-13.2.1867 (IX term), 22.3.1867-27.10.1867 (X term), 25.11.1868-14.8.1869 (XI legislature). He overlaid the post of Minister of Justice in the first government of Count Frederick Louis Menabrea (Chambery, Savoy, 4.9.1809 - There 25.5.1896), government's short-lived (27.10.1867-5.1.1868).

[ii] G. Dainelli, Countries and peoples of the Karakorum. Caravan of life in western Tibet. Published under the auspices of the R. Italian Geographic Society, Luigi Pampaloni publisher, Florence, 1924, fully. 2 [pp. VIII + 291 + 74 tavv. f.t. +1 letter; (4) + 323 + 95 tavv. f.t. + 1 letter].

[iii] His Enrico Alfonso Cecioni (Florence 30.9 1900 – Florence 27.6.1970) and Alessandro Latini (born 24.9.1897), see the bios set out on pages 376 and 377 di G.G. Bausi, S. Caciolli, L’IGM sul Karakorum (1930). Reflections on “Miscellaneous Dainelli”, an unprecedented Library Military Geographic Institute, “TheUniverse“, a. LXXVIII, n. 3, May 1998, pp. 373-386.

[iv] The book was also an English translation: G. Dainelli, Buddhists and Glaciers of Western Tibet, Tr. by Angus Davidson, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London, 1933, pp. XIII + 304 + 32 plates + 1 map.

[in] Please refer to Note 3. The article is also important because it puts well in relief of Dainelli certain personality traits and historical context.

[we] The work, announced under the title "History of exploration. Itineraries and research ", was published in 1934 [pp. XI + 434 + 46 tables (views and cards) + 1 folded paper, with 80 figures in the text (routes of shipments and travel)] holds' this literature occasioned by study trips, da escursioni di caccia, from exploratory routes, from "missions" official, and also from simple excursions, sometimes fruitful of interesting observations if the traveler, while not scholar, mentality was suitable for the observation, curiosity to know, and desire to tell an audience of readers " (p. 3). Pp.. 371-425 the copious bibliography.

[vii] Understand:

– "Report of the event in honor of Giotto Dainelli", pp. 105-158. Among the various works, we highlight the contribution of the illustrations Dainelli in the fields of geology and geography, held respectively by Egidio Feruglio (pp. 110-126) and Riccardo Riccardi (pp. 126-132);

– "Academic distinctions conferred to Giotto Dainelli until 5 April 1954, pp. 159-160;

– "Location, plants and animals living or fossil, dedicated to Giotto Dainelli, and bibliography on ", pp. 161-165;

– "Annotated Bibliography of the writings of Giotto Dainelli", pp. 166-251;

- "Magazines and newspapers have published the writings of Giotto Dainelli, and corresponding years in the publication ", pp. 252-254.

[viii] Contains the update of the bibliography, published in 1954, indicated in the previous note:

- "Writings of Giotto Dainelli appeared after the 31 March 1954 ", pp. 2-4.

[Safety data sheet by E. G. Bargiacchi in June 2009]

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